2023.02.08
Points of this article
・A circuit to realize the power supply sequence ② consists of 3 DCDCs, 2 Power Good blocks, and 3 discharge circuits.
In relation to the Power Supply Sequence Specification ②, in the article before the last and in the previous article, sequence operations upon power turn-on and shutoff were explained. In this article, an actual circuit example to realize the specification ② as well as component value calculations for circuit settings are explained.
Below is shown an example of a circuit that realizes the power supply sequence ②. For the three DCDC systems 1 to 3, switching regulators or linear regulators (LDOs) are assumed. Each DCDC has an enable pin (EN) that can turn the output on and off.
There are two Power Good blocks. In specification ①, a Power Good function was implemented using a BD4142HFV, which is an IC for voltage monitoring; but in this specification, the Power Good function is configured using the non-inverting hysteresis comparator shown below. In this case, a BA8391G comparator IC is used.
A large hysteresis voltage is provided between the detection voltage at startup V_{H} and the detection voltage at shutoff V_{L}. By this means, a single device can detect the voltage at both startup and shutoff and can output a corresponding control signal.
Taking as an example V_{OUT1} of the above example circuit, we calculate component values. V_{OUT1} is 1.2 V, and PGOOD for IC1 is set to output a flag upon reaching 90% of the output voltage. The detection voltage at startup V_{H} is 1.2 V×0.9 = 1.08 V. The detection voltage at shutoff V_{L} is set to 0.5 V. These voltages essentially ensure that, even if a reverse voltage is applied across the power supplies, a parasitic element is not turned on.
The comparator threshold voltage V_{TH} is set to midway between V_{H} and V_{L}, as shown below. The value can be determined using equation 2-1.
V_{TH} can also be expressed as in equation 2-2. Modifying equation 2-2 so as to solve for R2 results in equation 2-3.
With R_{1} set to 47 kΩ, V_{CC} is supplied from V_{IN} and so is 5 V, and R_{2} is found from the following equation to be 8.8 kΩ. From the E24 series, a nominal resistance value of 9.1 kΩ is selected.
R_{3} is selected so as to be the same as the impedance of the non-inverting input pin (-IN) in order to cancel the input bias current. From equation 2-4, the value is 7.6 kΩ, and from the E24 series, a nominal resistance value of 7.5 kΩ is selected.
Equations 2-5 and 2-6 are general calculation equations to find V_{H} and V_{L} for a non-inverting hysteresis comparator. Upon converting these into equations to find R_{4} and R_{PULLUP}, we obtain equations 2-7 and 2-8.
Substituting the above-determined component values into equations 2-7 and 2-8, we determine the remaining values.
A similar procedure can be used for the V_{OUT2} Power Good block. Please refer to the overall circuit example presented at the beginning.
Discretely configured discharge circuits are connected to the DCDCs. As indicated by the diagram below, the circuits consist of NPN transistors and resistors. The first-stage transistor is a simple inverter circuit; the second stage is an open-collector switch. Turn-on of the second stage causes the remaining charge, mainly in the output capacitor, to be discharged at DCDC shutoff, rapidly causing VOUT to fall. The fall time of the output voltage is adjusted through the value of the resistor (R4 in the diagram below) series-connected to the collector of the second-stage transistor. This is the same as in specification ①.
This is a hand book for understanding the basics of linear regulators, such as operating principles, classification, characteristics by circuit configuration, advantages and disadvantages. In addition, typical specifications of linear regulators, efficiency and thermal calculations are also explained.
This is a hand book for understanding the basics of linear regulators, such as operating principles, classification, characteristics by circuit configuration, advantages and disadvantages. In addition, typical specifications of linear regulators, efficiency and thermal calculations are also explained.